Causatives, Subjunctives, Direct, Indirect Speech

CAUSATIVES

Main Verbs : have, make, let, get

Active : Roni gets  his sister to finish her homework

Passive : Roni gets her homework finished by his sister

Active : My mother let Tomi to cook this rice.

Passive : My mother let this rice cooked by. Tomi.

Real Meaning : My mother asks Tomi to cook this rice.

SUBJUNCTIVES

SUBJUNCTIVES adalah suatu bentuk penghargaan (Mirip dengan Conditional Sentences) yang mempunyai arti yang berlawanan dengan kenyataan.

FACT SUBJUNCTIVES
Present (S+V1) Past (S+V2)
Past (S+V2) Present Perfect (S+had+V3)

Ada beberapa bentuk SUBJUNCTIVES :

  1. Wish

Fact               : I don’t have money (Present S+V1)

Subjunctives : I wish I had money (Past S+V2)

Fact               : The teacher is present (Present S+V1)

Subjunctives    : The students wish the teacher were not present (Past S+V2)

Fact               : I didn’t wacth the film on tv yesterday (Past S+V2)

Subjunctives : I wish I had  wacthed the film on tv yesterday (Present Perfect S+had+V3)

 2. Would Rather (Lebih Suka)

Fact               : The children don’t have breakfast (Present S+V1)

Subjunctives : The children would rather had breakfast (Past S+V2)

Fact               : My mother didn’t permit me to follow the hiking (Past S+V2)

Subjunctives : I would rather my mother had permitted me to follow the hiking (Present Prefect S+had+V3)

 3. As if / as though (Seolah-olah)

Fact               : Hendro dosen’t khow the answere. (Present S+V1)

Subjunctives : Hendro come in front as if the knew the answare. (Past S+V2)

Fact               : My father was at home (Past S+V2)

Subjunctives : My mother talked as though my father hadn’t been at home (S+had+V3)

Fact               : The boy didn’t have a car (Past S+V2)

Subjunctives : The boy talked to his girlfriend as if he had had a car. (S+had+V3)

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Conditional Sentences merupakan kalimat pengandaian yang menunjukkan suatu harapan atau sesuatu yang tidak sesuai dengan kenyataan.

Ada tiga (3) tipe Conditional :

TYPE If Clause Main Clause
Type 1 Simple Present (S+V1) Preset Future (S+will+V1)
Type 2 Past Tense (S+V2) Past Future (S+Would+V1)
Type 3 Perfect (S+had+V3) Past Perfect Future (S+Would+have+V3)

Example :

Real Meaning            : My mother (buy) the necklace if she (have) money

Type 1                      : My mother will buy the necklace if she has money

Type 2                      : My mother would buy the necklace if she had money

Type 3                      : My mother would have bought the necklace if she had had money

Direct and Indirect Speech

(Kalimat Langsung / Tidak langsung)

Ada beberapa hal yang diperhatikan :

  1. Perubahan kata ganti orang (Prounaouns)
    1. Semua kata ganti orang pertama tunggal/ Jamak (I, We) berubah menjadi secara ganti untuk orang yang berbicara.
    2. Semua kata ganti orang kedua tunggal / Jamak (You) berubah menjadi kata ganti orang untuk yang diajak berbicara.

Example :

Direct            : My father said to me, “I want to talk with you”.

Indirect         : My father said to me thet he wanted to talk with me.

  1. Perubahan kata kerja (Tences)
    1. Jika kata kerja pengantarnya (saying Verb) dalam bentuk present maka tidak ada perubahan Tences.

Example :

Direct            : My mother says to me,”I don’t want to help you”.

Indirect         : My mother says to me that she dosen’t want to help me.

  1. Jika kata kerjapengantarnya (saying verb) dalam bentuk past, maka tencesnya berubah
DIRECT INDIRECT
Present (S+V1) Past (S+V2)
Past (S+V2) Present Perfect (S+had+V3)

Example :

Direct            : Andi asked his mother,”Do you know my magazine?” (Present S+V1)

Indirect         : Andi asked his mother that She knew his magazine. (Present Perfect)

Direct            : Andi told me, “I met her in the market”. (Past S+V2)

Indirect         : Andi told me that he had met her in the market (Present Perfect)

  1. Perubahan Keterangan Waktu
DIRECT INDIRECT
Today That day
To night That night
Now Then
Just now Just then
Tomorrow The day after/ the following day
Next week The week after / the following week
Yesterday The day befor / the previouse day
Last week The week befor / the previouse week
Next Monday The Monday after
Last Friday The Friday befor
Tow hours ago Tow hours befor
Yesterday morning The morning befor/ the previouse morning
  1. Perubahan keteranga yang lain

Here à There

This à That

These à Those

  1. Kalimat Berita

Untuk kalimat berita, kata sambung yang digunakan adalah “That” contohnya :

Herman told me,”I like your brooch”

Herman told me that he liked my brooch

  1. Kalimat Perintah

Kalimat perintah merupakan kalimat yang dimulai kata kerja untuk perintah. Kata sambung yang digunakan adalah “to” dan diikuti kata kerja bentuk pertama.

Example :

The boy asked me,”help me to answere this letter, please!

è The boy asked me to help him to answere that letter.

  1. Kalimat Larangan

Kalimat laranagan merupakan kalimat yang dimulai dengan kata “don’t” untuk kalimat larangan kata sambung yang digunakan adalah “not to” dan diikuti oleh kata kerja bentuk pertama.

Example :

Tono warned his sister,”Don’t touch my books”

è Tono warned his sister not to touch his books.

  1. Kalimat tanya dengan kata tanya

(Question – word question) adalah kalimat tanya yang dimulai dengan kata tanya : Who, What, Where, When, Why, How many, How old, How tall, dsb

Kata sambung yang digunakan adalah Question word itu sendiri

Example :

The teacher asked the students, “When did you collect your work?” (Past S+V2)

è The teacher asked the students when they had collected their work.(Past Perfect S+had+V3)

  1. Kalimat tanya “Yes” and “No”

(Yes/No Question) dimulai dengan auxiliary Verb : am, is, are, was, were, had/has, do/does, will, can, must, may, would dll

Untuk Yes/No Question kata sambung yang digunakan adalah if atau whether.

Example :

The women asked her son,”will you clean the glass?”.

–>The women asked her son if he would clean the glass.

The boy asked mary,”Have you given the massage?”

–> The boy asked mary whether she had given the massage.

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